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Objects and Drops

Python Liquid uses __getitem__ internally for resolving property names and accessing items in a sequence. So, if your data is some combination of dictionaries and lists, for example, templates can reference objects as follows.

"products": [
"title": "Some Shoes",
"available": 5,
"colors": ["blue", "red"]
"title": "A Hat",
"available": 2,
"colors": ["grey", "brown"]
{{ products[0].title }}
{{ products[-2]['available'] }}
{{ products.last.title }}
{{ products.first.colors | join: ', ' }}
Some Shoes
A Hat
blue, red

Attempting to access properties from a Python class or class instance will not work.

from liquid import Template

class Product:
def __init__(self, title, colors):
self.title = title
self.colors = colors

products = [
Product(title="Some Shoes", colors=["blue", "red"]),
Product(title="A Hat", colors=["grey", "brown"]),

Template("{{ products.first.title }}!").render(products=products)

This is by design, and is one of the reasons Liquid is considered "safe" and "suitable for end users". To expose an object's properties we can implement Python's Sequence or Mapping interface.


Python Liquid's equivalent of a "drop", as found in Ruby Liquid, is a Python object that implements the Sequence or Mapping interface.

from collections import abc
from liquid import Template, StrictUndefined

class User(abc.Mapping):
def __init__(
self.first_name = first_name
self.last_name = last_name
self.perms = perms or []

self._keys = [

def __getitem__(self, k):
if k in self._keys:
return getattr(self, k)
raise KeyError(k)

def __iter__(self):
return iter(self._keys)

def __len__(self):
return len(self._keys)

def __str__(self):
return f"User(first_name='{self.first_name}', last_name='{self.last_name}')"

def is_admin(self):
return "admin" in self.perms

def name(self):
return f"{self.first_name} {self.last_name}"

user = User("John", "Smith", ["admin"])

print(Template("{{ user.first_name }}").render(user=user)) # John
print(Template("{{ }}").render(user=user)) # John Smith
print(Template("{{ user.is_admin }}").render(user=user)) # true

print(Template("{{ user.perms[0] }}", undefined=StrictUndefined).render(user=user))
# UndefinedError: key error: 'perms', user[perms][0], on line 1

Drop Wrapper

One could implement a simple "Drop" wrapper for data access objects like this, while still being explicit about which properties are exposed to templates.

class Drop(abc.Mapping):
def __init__(obj, keys):
self.obj = obj
self.keys = keys

def __getitem__(self, k):
# Delegate attribute access to self.obj only if `k` is in `self.keys`.
if k in self.keys:
return getattr(obj, k)
raise KeyError(k)

def __iter__(self):
return iter(self.keys)

def __len__(self):
return len(self.keys)


By implementing a __liquid__ method, Python objects can behave like primitive Liquid data types. This is useful for situations where you need your Python object to act as an array index, or to be compared to a primitive data type, for example.

from liquid import Template

class IntDrop:
def __init__(self, val: int):
self.val = val

def __int__(self) -> int:
return self.val

def __str__(self) -> str:
return "one"

def __liquid__(self) -> int:
return self.val

template = Template(
"{% if my_drop < 10 %}"
"{{ my_drop }} "
"{% endif %}"
"{{ some_array[my_drop] }}"

context_data = {
"my_drop": IntDrop(1),
"some_array": ["a", "b", "c"],

print(template.render(**context_data)) # one b


When HTML auto-escaping is enabled, an object can be output as an HTML-safe string by implementing an __html__() method.

from liquid import Environment

class ListDrop:
def __init__(self, somelist):
self.items = somelist

def __str__(self):
return f"ListDrop({self.items})"

def __html__(self):
lis = "\n".join(f" <li>{item}</li>" for item in self.items)
return f"<ul>\n{lis}\n</ul>"

env = Environment(autoescape=True)
template = env.from_string(r"{{ products }}")
print(template.render(products=ListDrop(["Shoe", "Hat", "Ball"])))

If auto-escaping is not enabled, __html__ is ignored and the return value of __str__ is used instead. Explicitly escaping an object using the escape filter will always yield an escaped version of __str__.

__str__ and __int__

Other Python magic methods will work with Liquid filters and special properties too.

from liquid import Environment

env = Environment()

class Foo:
def __int__(self):
return 7

def __str__(self):
return "Bar"

def __len__(self):
return 5

template = env.from_string(
{{ foo }}
{{ foo | plus: 2 }}
{{ foo.size }}